Software for spatially-explicit simulation of forest dynamics

SORTIE-ND Publications

These include publications from projects using SORTIE, projects for SORTIE parameterization, and publications on techniques and algorithms used in SORTIE.


Canham, C. D., and L. Murphy. 2016. The demography of tree species response to climate: seedling recruitment and survival. Ecosphere 7(8):e01424. 10.1002/ecs2.1424

Canham, C. D., and L. Murphy. 2016. The demography of tree species response to climate: sapling and canopy tree growth. Ecosphere 7(10):e01474. 10.1002/ecs2.1474.

Evans, M. R., and A. Moustakas. 2016. A comparison between data requirements and availability for calibrating predictive ecological models for lowland UK woodlands: learning new tricks from old trees. Ecology and Evolution 6(14):4812-4822.


Ameztegui, A., L. Coll, and C. Messier. 2015. Modelling the effect of climate-induced changes in recruitment and juvenile growth on mixed-forest dynamics: The case of montane-subalpine Pyrenean ecotones. Ecological Modelling 313:84-93.

Bose, A. K., B. D. Harvey, K. D. Coates, S. Brais, and Y. Bergeron. 2015. Modelling stand development after partial harvesting in boreal mixedwoods of eastern Canada. Ecological Modelling 300:123-126.

Forsyth, D. M., D. J. Wilson, T. A. Easdale, G. Kunstler, C. D. Canham, W. A. Ruscoe, E. F. Wright, L. Murphy, A. M. Gormley, and A. Gaxiola. 2015. Century-scale effects of invasive deer and rodents on the dynamics of forests growing on soils of contrasting fertility. Ecological Monographs 85(2):157-180.


Canham, C. D., N. Rogers, and T. Buchholz. 2013. Regional variations in forest harvest regimes in the northeastern United States. Ecological Applications 23:515-522.

Juez, L., S. C. González-Martínez, N. Nikos, A. I. de-Lucas, C. Ordóñez, C. del Peso, and F. Bravo. 2014. Can seed production and restricted dispersal limit recruitment in Pinus pinaster Aiton from the Spanish Northern Plateau? Forest Ecology and Management 313:329-339.

Kunstler, G., R. B. Allen, D. A. Coomes, C. D. Canham, and E. F. Wright. 2013. Sustainable management, earthquake disturbances, and transient dynamics: modelling timber harvesting impacts in mixed-species forests.Annals of Forest Science 70(3):287-298.

Yasuda, A. T. Yoshida, H. Miya, and B. D. Harvey. 2013. An alternative management regime of selection cutting for sustaining stand structure of mixed forests of northern Japan: a simulation study. Journal of Forest Research 18(5):398-406.


Ameztegui, A., L. Coll, R. Benavides, F. Valladares, and A. Paquette. 2012. Understory light predictions in mixed conifer mountain forests: Role of aspect-induced variation in crown geometry and openness. Forest Ecology and Management 276:52-61.

Hawkins, D. B., A. Dhar, N. A. Balliet, and K. D. Runzer. 2012. Residual mature trees and secondary stand structure after mountain pine beetle attack in central British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 277:107-115.

Nitschke, C. R., M. Amoroso, K. D. Coates, and R. Astrup. 2012. The influence of climate change, site type, and disturbance on stand dynamics in northwest British Columbia, Canada. Ecosphere 3.


Ameztegui, A., and L. Coll. 2011. Tree dynamics and co-existence in the montane-sub-alpine ecotone: the role of different light-induced strategies. Journal of Vegetation Science 22:1049-1061.

Beaudet, M., B. D. Harvey, C. Messier, K. D. Coates, J. Poulin, D. D. Kneeshaw, S. Brais, Y. Bergeron. 2011. Managing understory light conditions in boreal mixedwoods through variation in the intensity and spatial pattern of harvest: A modelling approach. Forest Ecology and Management 261:84-94.

Vanderwel, M. C, J. P. Caspersen, J. R. Malcolm, M. J. Papaik, and C. Messier. 2011. Structural changes and potential vertebrate responses following simulated partial harvesting of boreal mixedwood stands. Forest Ecology and Management 261:1362-1371.


Canham, C. D., J. Thompson, J. K. Zimmerman, and M. Uriarte. 2010. Variation in susceptibility to hurricane damage as a function of storm intensity in Puerto Rican tree species. Biotropica 42(1):87-94.

Comita, L. S., J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, I. Jonckheere, C. D. Canham and J. K. Zimmerman. 2010. Interactive effects of land use history and natural disturbance on seedling dynamics in a subtropical forest. Ecol. Appl. 20(5):1270-1284.

Forsyth, D.M., J. M. Wilmshurst, R. B. Allen, and D. A. Coomes. 2010. Impacts of introduced deer and extinct moa on New Zealand ecosystems. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34: 48-65.

Gaxiola, A., S. M. McNeill, and D. A. Coomes. 2010. What drives retrogressive succession? Plant strategies to tolerate infertile and poorly drained soils. Functional Ecology 24: 714-722.

Martin, P. H., C. D. Canham, and R. K. Kobe. 2010. Divergence from the growth-survival trade-off and extreme high growth rates drive patterns of exotic tree invasions in closed-canopy forests. J. Ecol. 98:778-789.

Martin, P. H., and C. D. Canham. 2010. Dispersal and recruitment limitation in native versus exotic tree species: life-history strategies and Janzen-Connell effects. Oikos 119:807-824.

Papaik, M. J., A. Fall, B. Sturtevant, D. Kneeshaw, C. Messier, M. J. Fortin, and N. Simon. 2010. Forest processes from stands to landscapes: exploring model forecast uncertainties using cross-scale model comparison. Can. J. For. Res. 40:2345-2359.

Thorpe, H. C., M. C. Vanderwel, M. M. Fuller, S. C. Thomas, and J. P. Caspersen. 2010. Modelling stand development after partial harvests: An empirically based, spatially explicit analysis for lowland black spruce. Ecol. Modelling, 221: 256-267.

Thorpe, H. C., R. Astrup, A. Trowbridge, and K. D. Coates. 2010. Competition and tree crowns: A neighborhood analysis of three boreal tree species. Forest Ecology and Management 259:1586-1596.

Wright, D. M., G. J. Jordan, W. G. Lee, R. P. Duncan, D. M. Forsyth, and D. A. Coomes. 2010. Do leaves of plants on phosphorus-impoverished soils contain high concentrations of phenolic defence compounds? Functional Ecology 24: 52-61.


Coates, K. David, M. Boldor, E. Hall, R. Astrup. 2009. Evaluation of the Complex Stand Simulation Model SORTIE-ND for Timber Supply Review in Sub-Boreal Forests of Northern BC. Technical Report For Forest Science Program Project Y093187.

Coates, K. David, C. D. Canham, and P. T. LePage. 2009. Above- versus below-ground competitive effects and responses of a guild of temperate tree species. J. Ecol. 97:118-130.

Coomes, D.A., G. Kunstler, C. D. Canham, and E. Wright. 2009. A greater range of shade-tolerance niches in nutrient-rich forests: an explanation for positive richness-productivity relationships? Journal of Ecology 97: 705-717.

Hartmann, H., M. Beaudet, M. J. Mazerolle, and C. Messier. 2009. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) growth is influenced by close conspecifics and skid trail proximity following selection harvest. Forest Ecology and Management 258:823-831.

Kunstler, G., D. A. Coomes, and C. Canham. 2009. Size-dependent trade-offs in growth and mortality of regenerating trees in New Zealand lowland temperate rainforests. J. Ecol. 97:685-695.

Uriarte, M., C.D. Canham, J. Thompson, J.K. Zimmerman, L. Murphy, A.M. Sabat, N. Fetcher, and B.L. Haines. 2009. Natural disturbance and human land use as determinants of tropical forest dynamics: results from a forest simulator. Ecol. Monogr. 79(3):423-443


Arii, K., J. P. Caspersen, T. A. Jones, S. C. Thomas. 2008. A selection harvesting algorithm for use in spatially explicit individual-based forest simulation models. Ecological Modelling 211:251-266.

Astrup, R., K. D. Coates, and E. Hall. 2008. Finding the appropriate level of complexity for a simulation model: an example with a forest growth model. Forest Ecology and Management 256:1659-1665.

Dearden, F. M., and D. A. Wardle. The potential for forest canopy litterfall interception by a dense fern understorey, and the consequences for litter decomposition. Oikos 117:83-92.

Gaxiola, A., L. E. Burrows, and D. A. Coomes. 2008. Tree fern trunks facilitate seedling regeneration in a productive lowland temperate rain forest. Oecologia 155:325-335.

Hartmann, H., and C. Messier. 2008. The role of forest tent caterpillar defoliations and partial harvest in the decline and death of sugar maple. Ann. Bot. 102:377-387.

Lefrançois, M.-J., M. Beaudet, and C. Messier. 2008. Crown openness as influenced by tree and site characteristics for yellow birch, sugar maple and eastern hemlock. Can. J. For. Res., 38: 488-497.

Paquette, A., C. Messier, P. Périnet, and A. Cogliastro. 2008. Simulating light availability under different hybrid poplar clones in a mixed intensive plantation system. Forest Science 54:481-489.

Wardle, D. A., R. D. Bardgett, L. R. Walker, D. A. Peltzer, and A. Lagerstrom. 2008. The response of plant diversity to ecosystem retrogression: evidence from contrasting long-term chronosequences. Oikos 117: 93-103.


Banal, S., D. J. Marceau, and A. Bouchard. 2007. Sapling responses to variations in gap densities and spatial configurations modeled using SORTIE. Ecological Modelling 206:41:53.

Bee, J., G. Kunstler, and D. A. Coomes. 2007. Resistance and resilience of New Zealand tree species to browsing. J. Ecol. 95:1014-1026.

Stadt, K. J., C. Huston, K. D. Coates, Z. Feng, M. R. T. Dale, V. J. Lieffers. 2007. Evaluation of competition and light estimation indices for predicting diameter growth in mature boreal mixed forests. Ann. For. Sci. 64: 477-490.

Sturtevant, B. R., A. Fall, D. K. Kneeshaw, N. P. P. Simon, M. J. Papaik, K. Berninger, F. Doyon, D. J. Morgan, and C. Messier. 2007. A toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management planning: Achieving balance between science and local needs. Ecology and Society, 12: art 7.

Uriarte, M. and M. Papaik. 2007. Hurricane impacts on dynamics, structure and carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems in Southern New England, USA. Tellus 59a: 519-528.

Wilson, D. J., E. F. Wright, C. D. Canham, and W. A. Ruscoe. 2007. Neighbourhood analyses of tree seed predation by introduced rodents in a New Zealand temperate rainforst. Ecography 30:105-119.


Astrup, R. and B.C. Larson. 2006. Variability of species-specific crown openness for aspen and spruce in western boreal Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 228:241-250.

Canham, C. D., and M. Uriarte. 2006. Analysis of neighborhood dynamics of forest ecosystems using likelihood methods and modeling. Ecol. Appl. 16:62-73.

Gravel, D., C. D. Canham, M. Beaudet, and C. Messier. 2006. Reconciling niche and neutrality: The continuum hypothesis. Ecol. Lett. 9:399-409.

Husheer, S. W., A. W. Robertson, D. A. Coomes, C. M. Frampton. 2006. Herbivory and plant competition reduce mountain beech seedling growth and establishment in New Zealand. Plant Ecology 183:245-256.

Kneeshaw, D.D., R. K. Kobe, K. D. Coates, and C. Messier. 2006. Sapling size influences shade tolerance ranking among southern boreal tree species. J. Ecol. 94: 471-480.

Papaik, M. J., and C. D. Canham. 2006. Multi-model analysis of tree competition along environmental gradients in southern new england forests. Ecol. Appl. 16:1880-1892.

Papaik, M. J., and C. D. Canham. 2006. Species resistance and community response to wind disturbance regimes in northern temperate forests. J. Ecol. 94:1011-1026.

Vanderwel, M. C., J. P. Caspersen, and M. E. Woods. 2006. Snag dynamics in partially harvested and unmanaged northern hardwood forests. Can. J. For. Res. 36: 2769-2779.

Wilson, D. J., W. A. Ruscoe, L. E. Burrows, L. M. McElrea, and D. Choquenot. 2006. An experimental study of the impacts of understorey forest vegetation and herbivory by red deer and rodents on seedling establishment and species composition in Waitutu Forest, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 30:191-207.


Coates, K. D., and E. Hall. 2005. Implications of Alternate Silvicultural Strategies in Mountain Pine Beetle Damaged Stands. Technical Report For Forest Science Program Project Y051161.

Coomes, D. A., R. B. Allen, W. A. Bentley, L. E. Burrows, C. D. Canham, L. Fagan, D. M. Forsyth, A. Gaxiola-Alcantar, R. L. Parfitt, W. A. Ruscoe, D. A. Wardle, D. J. Wilson, E. F. Wright. 2005. The hare, the tortoise and the crocodile: the ecology of angiosperm dominance, conifer persistence and fern filtering. J. Ecol. 93:918-935.

Dubé, P., A. Ménard, A. B. Bouchard, and D. J. Marceau. 2005. Simulating the impact of small-scale extrinsic disturbances over forest species volumetric light environment. Ecological Modelling 182:113-129.

Forsyth, D. M., S. J. Richardson, and K. Menchenton. 2005. Foliar fibre predicts diet selection by invasive Red Deer Cervus elaphus scoticus in a temperate New Zealand forest. Functional Ecology 19: 495-504.

Papaik, M. J., C. D. Canham, E. F. Latty, and K. D. Woods. 2005. Effects of an introduced pathogen on resistance to natural disturbance: Beech bark disease and windthrow. Can. J. For. Res. 35:1832-1843.

Parfitt, R. L., D. J. Ross, D. A. Coomes, S. J. Richardson, M. C. Smale, and R. A. Dahlgren. 2005. N and P in New Zealand soil chronosequences and relationships with foliar N and P. Biogeochemistry 75: 305-328.

Ruscoe, W. A., J. S. Elkinton, D. Choquenot, and R. B. Allen. 2005. Predation of beech seed by mice: effects of numerical and functional responses. Journal of Animal Ecology 74:1005-1019.

Williamson, W. M., D. A. Wardle, and G. W. Yeates. 2005. Changes in soil microbial and nematode communities during ecosystem decline across a long-term chronosequence. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 1289-1301.

Tremblay, M., C. Messier, and D. J. Marceau. 2005. Analysis of deciduous tree species dynamics after a severe ice storm using SORTIE model simulations. Ecol. Modelling, 187: 297-313.

Tripler, C. E., C. D. Canham, R. S. Inouye, and J. L. Schnurr. 2005. Competitive hierarchies of temperate tree species: Interactions between resource availability and white-tailed deer. Ecoscience 12:494-505.

Uriarte, M., C. D. Canham, J. Thompson, J. K. Zimmerman, and N. Brokaw. 2005. Seedling recruitment in a hurricane-driven tropical forest: light limitation, density-dependence and the spatial distribution of parent trees. Journal of Ecology 93:291-304.


Canham, C. D., P. T. LePage, and K. D. Coates. 2004. A neighborhood analysis of canopy tree competition: effects of shading versus crowding. Can. J. For. Res. 34:778-787.

Gratzer, G., C. D. Canham, U. Dieckmann, A. Fischer, Y. Iwasa, R. Law, M. J. Lexer, H. Sandmann, T. Spies, B. Splechtna, and J. Szwagrzyk. 2004. Spatio-temporal development of forests - current trends in field studies and models. Oikos 107:3-15.

Greene, D. F., C. D. Canham, K. D. Coates, and P. T. LePage. 2004. An evaluation of alternative dispersal functions for trees. J. Ecol. 92:752-766.

Jenkins, J. C., D. C. Chojnacky, L. S. Heath, and R. A. Birdsey. 2004. Comprehensive Database of Diameter-based Biomass Regressions for North American Tree Species. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service General Technical Report NE-319.

Ruscoe, W. A. 2004. A new location record for kiore (Rattus exulans) on New Zealand's South Island. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31: 1-5.

Ruscoe, W. A., D. Wilson, L. McElrea, G. McElrea, and S. J. Richardson. 2004. house mouse (Mus musculus) population eruption in response to heavy rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) seedfall in southern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 28: 259-265.

Schnurr, J. L., C. D. Canham, R. S. Ostfeld, and R. S. Inouye. 2004. Neighborhood analyses of small mammal dynamics: Impacts on seed predation and seedling establishment. Ecology 85:741-755.

Uriarte, M., C. D. Canham, J. Thompson, and J. K. Zimmerman. 2004. A neighborhood analysis of tree growth and survival in a hurricane-driven tropical forest. Ecological Monographs 74(4):591-614.

Uriarte, M., R. Condit, C. D. Canham, and S. P. Hubbell. 2004. A spatially-explicit model of sapling growth in a tropical forest: Does the identity of neighbours matter? J. Ecol. 92:348-360.

Wardle, D. A., L. R. Walker, and R. D. Bardgett. 2004. Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences. Science 305(5683): 509-513.


Canham, C. D., J. J. Cole, and W. K. Lauenroth. 2003. The Role of Modeling in Ecosystem Science. pp 1-12. In: Canham, C. D., J. S. Cole, and W. K. Lauenroth (eds.). Models in Ecosystem Science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Coates, K. D., C. D. Canham, M. Beaudet, D. L. Sachs, and C. Messier. 2003. Use of a spatially-explicit individual-tree model (SORTIE/BC) to explore the implications of patchiness in structurally complex forests. For. Ecol. Manage. 186:297-310.

Le Guerrier, C., D. J. Marceau, A. Bouchard, and J. Brisson. 2003. A modelling approach to assess the long-term impact of beech bark disease in northern hardwood forest. Can. J. For. Res. 33:2416-2425.


Beaudet, M., C. Messier, and C. D. Canham. 2002. Predictions of understory light conditions in northern hardwood forests following parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and tests of the SORTIE light model. For. Ecol. Manage. 165:231-244.

Beaudet, M., and C. Messier. 2002. Variation in canopy openness and light transmission following selection cutting in northern hardwood stands: an assessment based on hemispherical photographs. Agric. For. Meteorol. 110: 217-228.

Bigelow, S. W., and C. D. Canham. 2002. Community organization of tree species along soil gradients in a northeastern USA forest. J. Ecol. 90:188-200.

Catovsky, S., R. K. Kobe, and F. A. Bazzaz. 2002. Nitrogen-induced changes in seedling regeneration and dynamics of mixed conifer-broad-leaved forests. Ecological Applications 12:1611-1625.

Ménard, A., P. Dubé, A. Bouchard, C. D. Canham, and D. J. Marceau. 2002. Evaluating the potential of the SORTIE forest succession model for spatio-temporal analysis of small-scale disturbances. Ecol. Model. 153:81-96.

Ménard, A., P. Dubé, A. Bouchard, and D. J. Marceau. 2002. Release episodes at the periphery of gaps: a modeling assessment of gap impact extent. Can. J. For. Res. 32:1651-1661.


Canham, C. D., M. J. Papaik, and E. F. Latty. 2001. Interspecific variation in susceptibility to windthrow as a function of tree size and storm severity for northern temperate tree species. Can. J. For. Res. 31:1-10.

Dubé, P., M. -J. Fortin, C. D. Canham, and D. J. Marceau. 2001. Quantifying gap dynamics and spatio-temporal structures in spatially-explicit models of temperate forest ecosystems. Ecol. Model. 142:39-60.

Goldenberg, S. B., C. W. Landsea, A. M. Mestas-Nunez, and W. M. Gray. 2001. The Recent Increase in Atlantic Hurricane Activity: Causes and Implications. Science 293:474-479.


Condit, R., P. S. Ashton, P. Baker, S. Bunyavejchewin, S. Gunatilleke, N. Gunatilleke, S. P. Hubbel, R. B. Foster, A. Itoh, J. V. LaFrankie, H. S. Lee, E. Losos, N. Manokaran, R. Sukumar, and T. Yamakura. 2000. Spatial Patterns in the Distribution of Tropical Tree Species. Science 288:1414-1418.

Finzi, A. C., and C. D. Canham. 2000. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 131:153-165.

Knapp, L. B., and C. D. Canham. 2000. Invasion of old-growth forests by Ailanthus altissima: sapling growth and recruitment in canopy gaps. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127:307-315.

Lepage, P. T., C. D. Canham, K. D. Coates, and P. Bartemucci. 2000. Seed source versus substrate limitation of seedling recruitment in northern temperate forests of British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 30:415-427.

Loehle, C. 2000. Forest ecotone response to climate change: sensitivity to temperature response functional forms. Can. J. For. Res. 30:1632-1645.

Wright, E. F., C. D. Canham, and K. D. Coates. 2000. Effects of suppression and release on sapling growth for eleven tree species of northern, interior British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 30:1571-1580.


Canham, C. D., K. D. Coates, P. Bartemucci, and S. Quaglia. 1999. Measurement and modeling of spatially-explicit variation in light transmission through interior cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 29:1775-1783.

Casperson, J. P., J. A. Silander, Jr., C. D. Canham, and S. W. Pacala. 1999. Modeling the competitive dynamics and distribution of tree species along moisture gradients. In: D. Mladenoff and W. Baker (eds.). Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14-41.

Coates, K.D., and P. J. Burton. 1999. Growth of planted tree seedlings in response to ambient light levels in northwestern interior cedar - hemlock forests of British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 29:1374-1382.


Finzi, A. C., and C. D. Canham. 1998. Non-additive effects of litter mixtures on net N mineralization in a southern New England forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 105:129-136.

Finzi, A. C., C. D. Canham, and N. van Breemen. 1998. Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on pH and cations. Ecol. Appl. 8:447-454.

Finzi, A. C., N. van Breemen, and C. D. Canham. 1998. Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on carbon and nitrogen. Ecol. Appl. 8:440-446.

Papaik, M. J. 1998. Effects of windstorm in northern temperate forests. Master's Thesis, Bard College. 1998.

Wright, E. F., K. D. Coates, and P. Bartemucci. 1998. Regeneration from seed of 6 tree species in the interior cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia as affected by substrate and canopy gap position. Can. J. For. Res. 28:1352-1364.

Wright, E. F., K. D. Coates, C. D. Canham, and P. Bartemucci. 1998. Species variability in growth response to light across climatic regions in northwestern British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 28:871-886.


Hilborn, R., and M. Mangel. 1997. The Ecological Detective: Confronting Models with Data. Princeton University Press.

Kobe, R. K., and K. D. Coates. 1997. Models of sapling mortality as a function of growth to characterize interspecific variation in shade tolerance of eight tree species of northwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:227-236.

van Breemen, N., A. F. Finzi, and C. D. Canham. 1997. Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: Effects of elemental composition and texture on species distributions. Can. J. For. Res. 27:1110-1116.


Pacala, S. W., C. D. Canham, J. Saponara, J. A. Silander, Jr., R. K. Kobe, and E. Ribbens. 1996. Forest models defined by field measurements: II. Estimation, error analysis and dynamics Ecol. Monogr. 66:1-43.


Bolker, B. M., S. W. Pacala, F. A. Bazzaz, C. D. Canham, and S. A. Levin. 1995. Species diversity and ecosystem response to carbon dioxide fertilization: conclusions from a temperate forest model. Global Change Biol. 1:373-381.

Canham, C. D., and S. W. Pacala. 1995. Linking tree population dynamics and forest ecosystem processes. In: C. G. Jones and J. H. Lawton (eds.). Linking Species and Ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, Inc., New York. pp. 84-93.

Kobe, R. K., S. W. Pacala, J. A. Silander, Jr., and C. D. Canham. 1995. Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecol. Appl. 5:517-532.


Belsky, A. J., and C. D. Canham. 1994. Forest gaps and isolated savanna trees: an application of patch dynamics in two ecosystems. BioScience 44:77-84.

Canham, C. D., A. C. Finzi, S. W. Pacala, and D. H. Burbank. 1994. Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Can. J. For. Res. 24:337-349.

Pacala, S. W., C. D. Canham, J. A. Silander, Jr., and R. K. Kobe. 1994. Sapling growth as a function of resources in a north temperate forest. Can. J. For. Res. 24:2172-2183.

Ribbens, E., S. W. Pacala, and J. A. Silander, Jr. 1994. Recruitment in forests: calibrating models to predict patterns of seedling dispersal. Ecology 75:1794-1806.


Pacala, S. W., C. D. Canham, and J. A. Silander, Jr. 1993. Forest models defined by field measurements: I. The design of a northeastern forest simulator. Can. J. For. Res. 23:1980-1988.


Frelich, L. E., and C. G. Lorimer. 1991. A Simulation of Landscape-Level stand dynamics in the northern hardwood region, Journal of Ecology, 79:223-233.


Canham, C. D., J. S. Denslow, W. J. Platt, J. R. Runkle, T. A. Spies, and P. S. White. 1990. Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Can. J. For. Res. 20:620-631.


Canham, C. D. 1989. Different responses to gaps among shade-tolerant trees species. Ecology 70(3):548-550.


Canham, C. D. 1988. An index for understory light levels in and around canopy gaps. Ecology 69:1634-1638.


Iqbal, M. 1983. An Introduction to Solar Radiation. Academic Press, Toronto.


Scott, C. T. 1979. Northeastern forest survey revised cubic-foot volume equations. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station Research Note NE-304.


Messavage, C., and J. W. Girard. 1956. Tables for estimating board-foot volume of timber. USDA Forest Service.